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Vehicle Parking Standards are set out in Parking Standards: Design and Good Practice September 2009, adopted by the Council in November 2009.

Appendix 3 - Vehicle Parking Standards Essex Planning Officers Association, August 2001

Foreword

The provision of car parking is an important area of development control and a key tool in promoting sustainable transport. Previous standards for car parking were produced by Essex County Council in 1987 for the then County of Essex. These standards were produced on the basis of a minimum requirement, with any shortfalls being balanced through ‘commuted payments’ made to the relevant local authority to contribute to public transport infrastructure and services.

The publication of the Transport White Paper “A New Deal For Transport: Better For Everyone” in 1998 represented a significant point of change for transport policy and planning. Local authorities are expected to promote sustainability through encouraging modal shift and the use of alternative forms of travel to the car, mainly public transport, walking and cycling. Adopting the principle of maximum parking standards is a means of promoting sustainable development. Whereas previous parking guidance for Essex advocated a minimum benchmark for the number of spaces permitted, the new standards set a maximum limit on the number of spaces provided.

This approach is in accordance with Regional Planning Guidance for the South East (RPG9) which was adopted in March 2001 and Planning Policy Guidance (PPG) and Planning Policy Statements published by the Government, including;

- PPG3 - Housing (March 2000), and

- PPG13 - Transport (March 2001).

To take account of this change in policy, the Essex Planning Officers Association appointed a working party to undertake a review of parking standards with the objective of developing maximum standards and promoting sustainable travel patterns. These standards are contained within this document. Details of the composition and terms of reference of the working party are provided on page 2. The Essex and Southend on Sea Replacement Structure Plan provides for the introduction of maximum standards in accordance with Government guidance to be issued as (Policy T12 - Vehicle Parking).The standards form a consistent basis for discussion between applicants for planning permission and the appropriate local planning authority. It is intended that they should be applied throughout Essex, Southend and Thurrock. However, it is recognised that situations may arise where the local economic environment and the availability of alternative means of travel to the car may lead to parking provision that is more appropriate to local circumstances. The main standards are specifically for the parking of cars, but it is emphasised in the document that separate additional provision at an appropriate level should be made for service vehicles delivering goods to any development or operating from that development. Standards for the parking of cycles and motorcycles are included separately. It should be noted that these standards represent minimum permitted provision, rather than maximum, reflecting the sustainable nature of these travel modes. Guidance for the provision of parking for people with disabilities, in accordance with the Disability Discrimination Act 1996, is included in Appendix 2.

Standards For Vehicle Parking In Essex

Advisory parking standards for development in Essex, Southend-on-Sea and Thurrock. The standards are commended for adoption as Thurrock Council may also wish to consider adoption of the standards in relation to the Thurrock Unitary Development Plan.

Contents

Foreword

The Need for Vehicle Parking Standards

The Application of Vehicle Parking Standards

Vehicle Parking Standards:

Class A1 - Shops

Class A2 - Financial & Professional Services

Class A3 - Food & Drink

Class B1 - Business

Class B2 - General Industrial

Class B8 - Storage or Distribution

Class C1 - Hotels

Class C2 - Residential Institutions

Class C3 - Dwelling Houses

Class D1 - Non-Residential Institution

Class D2 - Assembly & Leisure

Unclassified Uses

Cycle Parking Standards

Motorcycle Parking Standards

Appendix 1: Summary of Parking Standards

Appendix 2: Design and Layout (including Disabled Parking Provision)

Appendix 3: Design and Layout of Cycle Parking

The Need for Vehicle Parking Standards

The need for greater control of parking has developed as a result of growth in motor traffic and particularly in the ownership and use of private cars. The number of licensed vehicles of all types on the roads of Britain doubled over a thirty year period to 27 million in 1997. Private cars comprise just over 80% of the 1997 total. This level of vehicle ownership has led to increased levels of congestion and pollution, particularly in more densely populated areas. The publication of the Transport White Paper “A New Deal For Transport: Better For Everyone” by the DETR in1998 represented a change in policy regarding transport policy and planning. Local authorities are expected to promote sustainability through encouraging modal shift and the use of alternative forms of travel to the car, mainly public transport, walking and cycling.

The application of car parking standards to new or extended development is a key tool to contributing to reduced levels of traffic. Local planning and transport authorities produce parking standard guidance to ensure that an appropriate level of off-street parking provision is achieved. The Road Traffic Reduction Act (1997) requires local authorities to assess traffic conditions within their areas and set targets for future traffic levels. The initial Road Traffic Reduction reports for Essex County Council and Southend-on-Sea and Thurrock Unitary Councils are contained within their respective Local Transport Plans, published in July 2000.

In October 1999, the Government produced Planning Policy Guidance (PPG) Note 13 (Draft) on Transport. The final version of PPG 13 was produced in March 2001. This recommended the adoption of maximum parking standards by local authorities as a means of promoting sustainability, through limiting the number of spaces provided at new or extended developments. The Essex and Southend-on-Sea Replacement Structure Plan was adopted in April of 2001. Policy T12 - Vehicle Parking, provides for the introduction of maximum standards in accordance with Government guidance.

Policy T12 states that:

“Provision for vehicle parking will be considered within the context of adopted local plans and Local Transport Plans, and will have regard to the following principles:-
- vehicle and cycle parking provision will be made in accordance
with parking standards developed within the context of Regional Planning Guidance and Local Transport Plans and issued as Supplementary Planning Guidance, and taking into account the following factors:

a) expression as a range of maximum and operational amounts of parking for broad classes of development and location;

b) the degree of accessibility by a range of indicators;

c) the degree of road traffic congestion in town centres;

d) the economic vitality and viability of town centres and village centres;

- all proposals for new development will be considered against the published parking standards”

Publishing guidance on vehicle parking standards is intended to:

a) assist the local planning authorities in determining appropriate standards for their areas and advising members of the public in a readily comprehensible manner;

b) assist intending developers in preparing plans for the development of land; and,

c) expedite the determination of planning applications by ensuring that applications submitted include an acceptable level of car parking provision.

The Application of Car Parking Standards

The Parking Standards are based on the Town & Country Planning (Use Classes) Order 1987. They are expressed as a range of maximum and operational amounts of parking for broad classes of development in accordance with Policy T12 of the Essex and Southend on Sea Replacement Structure Plan (see above).

There are locations within Essex, Southend and Thurrock where the respective District / Borough Council will consider that these guidelines may need to be varied having regard to local circumstances. Minimal private parking provision should be applied to locations such as the town centres of major urban areas, where access to public car parking facilities and alternative forms of transport is good. Conversely, development which is proposed in more rural or isolated areas may be permitted to include greater levels of parking where the car is the only realistic means of access. However, the standards as proposed within this document are intended to provide a consistent and standard framework that can be equitably applied across the Essex, Southend and Thurrock area.

All standards relate to the gross floorspace of new or extended development unless otherwise stated. All references to parking spaces refer to car spaces.

Environmental Considerations

The local planning authority may consider it desirable that additional land be provided in order that car parking areas may be suitably screened and landscaped. It is considered that such additional provision of land is a matter for negotiation between the intending developer and the local planning authority.

The importance of good design is emphasised. Car parking areas are rarely attractive visually and should always be located in such positions as to minimise their impact on the townscape, and in such positions that would encourage their use. They should be designed so that people feel comfortable using them after dark.

Operational and Non-operational Parking

In producing car parking standards in the past, several planning authorities have distinguished between operational and non-operational parking requirements, where operational parking space is defined as the space required for vehicles regularly and necessarily involved in the operation of the business for which the premises are used. This includes space for commercial vehicles and for loading and unloading goods, but does not include space for vehicles to be stored, except where this is necessary as part of the business being carried on in the building. Non-operational parking space is reserved for vehicles which do not need to park on site. It has been decided not to follow this format in the present document but to distinguish instead between car parking provision and provision for service vehicles delivering goods to premises or removing goods therefrom. No distinction is made between operational and non-operational car parking in the standards set out in this document. The guidance includes reference to the provision of space for the loading and unloading of service vehicles for each Use Class where applicable. This is considered in further detail below.

Calculation of Parking Requirements

It will be noted that most of the standards are related to floorspace area. Thus, where the standard is, for example, one car parking space for every 4sq.m of floorspace, and a development has a relevant floorspace of 19sq.m, a calculation of 4 into 19 gives 4.75 spaces which is rounded down to the nearest whole number to give a total requirement of 4 spaces.

Where a development incorporates two or more land uses to which different parking standards are applicable, the standards appropriate for each use should be simultaneously applied in proportion to the extent of the respective use. For example, where a development incorporates housing and offices, each use should be assessed separately according to the appropriate standard, and the aggregated number of resulting parking spaces reflects the maximum number of spaces that should be provided.

Shared Use Provision

Where shared use of parking areas can be achieved without conflict (i.e. where uses are clearly separated in terms of time of day or day of the week) this is highly desirable, provided that the provision is within the most demanding standard applicable. This may result in a reduction of the number of parking spaces which a developer provides.

Service Vehicles

Service vehicles are regarded as those vehicles delivering goods to or removing goods from a premises. It is recognised that servicing requirements may be unique to a particular site. Service traffic varies with the type of enterprise within a given use class (e.g. the traffic serving a furniture shop may be very different in frequency and character from that supplying a supermarket). For this reason, no standard dimensions are provided for parking and turning spaces for service vehicles. It is considered that commercial enterprises should analyse their own requirements in terms of the size, numbers and types of commercial vehicles visiting their premises and should demonstrate to the local authority that any development proposal includes sufficient service vehicle provision to meet normal requirements. Such service provision should be clearly signed and marked to avoid being utilised as an overflow parking area.

Mention is made of the need for provision for service vehicles under relevant Use Classes within the car parking standards, but this need should be assumed to exist in all developments visited by service vehicles. The onus is placed on applicants/developers to demonstrate that adequate provision has been made on site for loading, unloading and turning of service vehicles.

Provision for Cycle and Motorcycle Parking

Parking standards for cycle and motorcycles are outlined on pages 12 - 14. These are expressed as minimum standards to reflect the sustainable nature of these modes of travel. Guidance on the application of these standards is provided.

Developer Contributions

In situations where it was not possible to meet the previously adopted minimum parking standards, developers were expected to provide ‘commuted payments’ to the local planning authority in situations where sufficient parking could not be supplied on site. In order to assist the change away from private cars, the new guidance expects developers to make contributions to enhance the local transport infrastructure in appropriate planning applications. These contributions will enable any increase in traffic to be accommodated and support the provision of alternative modes of travel where the level of activity at the site is in excess of the maximum parking provision identified. It is expected that further work will be undertaken relating to the issue of developer contributions.

Transport Assessments and Travel Plans

You will be required to submit a Transport Assessment with any large-scale development proposal, particularly where the development will have a significant impact on demand for travel. Where proposed developments are likely to create additional employment, you will be required to research, develop and implement a travel plan. Various measures can be included that are designed to offer staff a wider range of travel choices and reduce the number and impact of single occupancy car journeys. Staff can benefit from the provision of facilities such as secure cycle parking and lockers and employers can benefit from a reduction in costs associated with providing car parking spaces, a healthier workforce and good publicity. Essex County Council can offer advice and support on the development and implementation of travel plans. An introductory guide will soon be available which outlines the areas that need to be considered. To receive a copy or to talk to travel plan officer please contact Travel Plan Coordinator 01245 437120. For queries relating to travel plans in Southend-on-sea, please contact on 01702-215329.

MAXIMUM VEHICLE PARKING STANDARDS

A summary of the standards on pages 7 - 10 can be found in Appendix 1

USE CLASS A1 - Shops

  • retail of goods (other than hot food)
  • pet shops / stores
  • display of goods for sale
  • post office
  • ticket sales or a travel agency l sandwiches or cold food take-away
  • hairdressing
  • funeral direction
  • hire of domestic or personal goods l washing or cleaning of clothes
  • fabrics on the premises
  • reception of goods to be washed, cleaned or repaired (where sale, display or services is to visiting members of the public)

Standard:

1 space per 20sq.m. An absolute maximum standard of 1 space per 14sq.m may be applied to food retail developments.

Note:
In all cases, adequate provision shall be made for the parking and turning of service vehicles delivering goods to the premises and, where appropriate, delivery vehicles operating from the premises. For Cash & Carry and other Retail Warehouses, including Garden Centres, see Other Standards on Page 11. A Transport Assessment may also be required.

Justification:
PPG13 recommends the above standard over a threshold of 1,000sq.m. Previous Essex standards for such uses below this threshold were tighter, but represented minimum provision. This standard should therefore be applied to all developments.



USE CLASS A2 - Financial & Professional Services

  • financial services
  • professional services (other than health or medical)
  • any other services (including betting offices) which it is appropriate to provide within a shopping area, where services are principally provided to members of the public

Standard:

1 space per 20sq.m

Justification:
1987 Essex Standards / PPG13 Retail standard (see Use Class A1 above)



USE CLASS A3 - Food & Drink

  • sale of food and / or drink for consumption on the premises
  • sale of hot food for consumption off the premises

Note: Drive-through’ outlets should be considered under the heading of Roadside restaurants.

Standard:

Take-away outlets

1 space per 20 sq.m

Pubs and Clubs

1 space per 5 sq.m

Restaurants

1 space per 5 sq.m

Roadside restaurants

1 space per 5 sq.m

Transport cafes

1 lorry space per 2 sq.m

Note:
A lower provision may be appropriate in town centre locations where there is good access to alternative forms of transport and existing car parking facilities.

Justification:
Take-away outlets standard based on that for shops (Use Class A1).



USE CLASS B1 - Business

  • offices other than a use within Use Class A2 (financial or professional services)
  • research and development of products or processes
  • any industrial process, being a use which can be carried out in any residential area without detriment to the amenity of that area by reason of noise, vibration, smell, fumes, smoke, soot, ash, dust or grit.

Standard:

1 space per 30sq.m. A Transport Assessment (including a Travel Plan) is likely to be required for new or extended development of 2,500sq.m or above.

Note:
In all cases adequate provision shall be made for the parking and turning of service vehicles delivering goods to the premises and, where appropriate, delivery vehicles operating from the premises.

Justification:
PPG13. 1987 Essex Standards for Industry uses were tighter but represented minimum provision.



USE CLASS B2 - General Industrial

  • industrial processes other than those falling within Use Class B1 above.

Standard:

1 space per 50sq.m. A Transport Assessment will be required for developments of 5,000sq.m or above.

Note:
In all cases adequate provision shall be made for the parking and turning of service vehicles delivering goods to the premises and, where appropriate, delivery vehicles operating from the premises.

Justification:
As per Use Class B1 previous.



USE CLASS B8 - Storage or Distribution

• Use for storage or as a distribution centre (not including use as a shop)

Standard:

1 space per 150sq.m. A Transport Assessment will be required for developments of 10,000sq.m or above.

Note:
In all cases adequate provision shall be made for the parking and turning of service vehicles delivering goods to the premises and, where appropriate, delivery vehicles operating from the premises.

Justification:
1987 Essex Standards were tighter but represented minimum provision.



USE CLASS C1 - Hotels

• Use as a hotel or boarding or guest house where, in each case, no significant amount of care is provided (including Motels)
Note: For hostels, see Standards outside Use Classes Order on page 11.

Standard:

1 space per bedroom (guest or staff). Provision is expected to be less in town centre locations.

Note:
A lower provision may be appropriate in town centre locations where there is good access to alternative forms of transport and existing car parking facilities.

Justification:
1987 Essex Standards represented as maximum provision.



USE CLASS C2 - Residential Institutions

  • for the provision of residential accommodation and care to people in need
  • hospital or nursing home
  • residential school, college or training centre

Standard:

Residential care home

1 space per resident staff + 1 space per 3 bed spaces / dwelling units

Hospitals

1 space per 4 staff + 1 space per 3 daily visitors

Residential education establishments

1 space per resident staff + 1 space per 2 other staff
(any parking for students with vehicles should be provided within this figure)

Note:
A Transport Assessment may be required for new or extended development of 2,500sq.m and above.

Justification:

  • Residential care home: 1987 Essex Standards represented as maximum
  • Hospitals: PPG13 standard. To be applied above AND below recommended threshold (2,500sq.m) particularly where developments below this figure are extensions to existing premises.
  • Residential education establishments: Adapted from PPG13 standard for further and higher education.


USE CLASS C3 - Dwelling Houses

  • Use as a dwelling house (whether or not as sole main residence):
  • by a single person or by people living together as a family
  • by residents living together as a single household

Standard / Justification:

PPG3 advocates an average off-street parking provision of 1.5 spaces per dwelling as a maximum that should be provided, particularly in urban locations. With high density developments in high accessibility areas such as town centres, local authorities are encouraged to allow development with little or no off-street parking, subject to the safeguarding of the character and appearance of the area.

The plan area is of a diverse nature and to impose a uniform standard would not be possible or desirable. It also has to be acknowledged that government statements do not seek to restrict the ownership of private cars but offer alternatives to their use. This raises other issues that need to be taken into account when applying the standards.

Too rigid application of maximum standards, in existing residential areas, could result in on-street parking raising issues of pedestrian safety and possible obstruction for emergency services. Also, the impact on the living environment must be considered.

Nonetheless, local authorities would be expected to apply restraint where possible. In the case of major new developments, an average of 1.5 spaces over an estate may be possible.

For main urban areas and locations where access to public transport is good, a maximum of 1 space per dwelling is appropriate. Where an urban location has poor off-peak public transport services, a maximum of 2 spaces per dwelling is appropriate.

In rural or suburban locations where services are poor, a maximum of two spaces for three bedroom properties and a maximum of three spaces for four bedroom properties is appropriate.




USE CLASS D1 - Non-Residential Institutions

  • Provision of any medical or health services except the use of premises attached to the residence of the consultant or practitioner
  • Crêche, day nursery or day centre
  • The provision of education
  • Museums, including the display of works of art (other than for sale or hire)
  • Public libraries or reading rooms
  • Public or exhibition halls
  • For, or in connection with, public worship or religious instruction

Standard:

Medical centres

1 space per full-time staff + 2 spaces per consulting room

Day care centres

1 space per full-time staff + 1 space per 4 persons attending + an area reserved for collection and delivery of clients.

Crêches / Nurseries

1 space per full-time staff + waiting facilities where appropriate.

Schools (Primary and Secondary education) On merit, but as a general guide: 1 space per 2 daytime teaching staff.
Consideration also to be given to waiting facilities and provision for public / school transport at schools as appropriate.
Schools (Further and Higher education)

On merit, but as a general guide: 1 space per 2 daytime teaching staff. 1 space per 15 students Waiting facilities where appropriate, including priority area for public / school transport.
Art galleries / Museums/Public or Exhibition halls 1 space per 25sq.m
Places of Worship / Libraries / Reading rooms 1 space per 10sq.m


Note regarding Schools:

Developments in urban locations are expected to achieve a lower maximum provision in order to promote more sustainable ways of travelling to school. Transport Assessments and Travel Plans (including Safer Journeys To School) are likely to be required for most applications for development.

Justifications:

Medical centres / Day care centres: Adapted from 1987 Essex Standards. Spaces for staff are more lenient than PPG13 guidance for Hospitals due to economies of size in relation to uses.

  • Crêches / Nurseries: 1987 Essex Standard represented as maximum. Provision of waiting facilities may be provided in the form of a lay-by.
  • Schools (Primary and Secondary): Use of PPG13 standard for Further and Higher education. Further guidance provided by Essex County Council Learning Services and Property Service Directorates.
  • Schools (Further and Higher Education): PPG13
  • Art galleries / Museums and Public or Exhibition halls: 1987 Essex Standards were tighter, but represented minimum provision. PPG13 standards for Use Class “D2 including leisure” have been adapted for these uses.
  • Libraries / Reading rooms and Places of Worship: 1987 Essex Standards were tighter but represented minimum provision. Similarities have been drawn with Restaurants and Pubs and Clubs, which are often of similar size and people gather socially for short periods of time.


USE CLASS D2 - Assembly & Leisure

  • cinemas
  • concert halls
  • bingo halls and casinos
  • dance hall
  • swimming bath, skating rink, gymnasium or other area for indoor or outdoor sports or recreations, not involving motorised vehicles or firearms

Note:
Conference facilities and Stadia are included in Standards outside Use Class Order at the back.

Standard:

Cinemas - 1 space per 5 seats

Other uses - 1 space per 22sq.m

Justification:
PPG13. Provision at such uses will be expected to be lower within urban areas where other parking is located nearby.

OTHER STANDARDS

The following table outlines standards for uses which are not contained within the Town & Country Planning (Use Class) Order 1987.

Use:

Standard:

Justification:

Cash & Carry and other Retail Warehouses, and Garden Centres

1 space per 20m2

A Travel Assessment will be required for developments of 5,000m2 and above.

PPG13 retail standard.
Petrol Filling Stations 1 space per 20m2 retail space
Adequate space should be provided for the requirements of servicing vehicles.
PPG13 retail standard.
Motor Service Centres 1 space per staff + 1 space per 35m2 PPG13 industry standard - 1987 Essex Standard represented as maximum.
Motor vehicles Showrooms 1 space per 45m2 display area. PPG13 retail standard.
Taxi or vehicle hire 1 space per staff member permanently deployed at registered base site + one space per 5 registered vehicles. New standard.
Recycling Centre 1 space per staff + waiting facilities for users of the site. PPG13 industry standard.
Hostel 1 space per residential staff + 1 space per 2 other staff. Based on amalgamation of standards for hotels and day centres. Assumption that those requiring hostel services will not be accessing the site by car.
Caravan Parks 1 space per pitch + 1 space per residential staff +1 space per 2 other staff.
Marina 1 space per 2 mooring berths. 1987 Essex Standard represented as maximum.
Transport Interchange On merit, in relation to location and level of service.
Conference Facilities & Theatres 1 space per 5 seats A Transport Assessment may also be required. PPG13 Less parking will be expected to be provided within urban areas where other parking is located nearby.
Stadia 1 space per 15 seats. A Transport Assessment and Travel Plan will be required. PPG13.

CYCLE PARKING STANDARDS

The cycle parking standards outlined below have been formulated using those developed by Colchester Borough Council, which in turn acknowledges best practice applied by York City Council. The cycle standards should be applied by local authorities to all applications for new or extended development.

The provision of convenient secure parking and related facilities is fundamental to attracting modal shift to cycling, particularly from single occupancy motorised journeys made over shorter distances on a regular basis. Parking standards for cycling are therefore represented as the minimum provision required. Travel data contained within the Census assumes a ratio of 5:1 between car and cycle trips, which has been largely adopted for the standards outlined below. They represent a basis for helping to provide sufficient cycle parking facilities throughout Essex, Southend and Thurrock. In addition to the provision of secure parking, developers will be required to demonstrate that they have considered additional needs for cyclists, such as locker, changing and shower facilities.

Where it is not possible to provide cycle parking spaces on-site, developers will be expected to make financial contribution towards public provision of such facilities.

For information on the types and dimensions for cycle parking please refer to Appendix 2. More detailed information can be found in the Essex County Council 'Designing for Cyclists - Guide to Good Practice' and though the Travel Plan Coordinators.

At large development sites, the exact number of cycle parking spaces applied will depend on the individual characteristics of sites and also be determined in relation to Travel Plan.

Use Class Description of Land Use Minimum Cycle Parking Standard
A1* Shops food non-food 1 / 100m2 for staff,
1 / 100m2 for customers,
1 / 100m2 for staff,
1 / 200m2 for customers.
A2 Financial and Professional Services 1 / 100m2 for staff,
1 / 200m2 for customers.
A3 Pubs, Clubs and Restaurants 1 / 4 staff,
1 / 25m2 for customers.
A3 Roadside Restaurants and Transport Cafes 1 / 4 staff,
1 / 25m2 for customers.
B1 Hi-Tech Industry/Offices 1 / 50m2 for staff,
1 / 100m2 for visitors.
B2* Industry 1 / 50m2 for staff,
1 / 200m2 for visitors.
B8* Warehousing 1 / 100m2 for staff,
1 / 400m2 for visitors.
C1 Hotels and Motels 1 / 4 staff,
1 / 10 beds,
1 / 25m2 restaurant /entertainment area.
C2 Sheltered Housing 1 / 4 staff, 1 / 20 beds.
C2 Hospitals 1 / 4 staff, 1 / 20 beds.
C3 Residential None if garages provided. 2 / dwelling (two beds or more), 1 / dwelling (one bed), + 1 / 8 units (for visitors).
D1 Places of Worship 1 / 5 seats.
D1 Health Centres, Surgeries 1 / 4 staff,
1 / consulting room.
D1 Day Care Centres 1 / 4 staff,
1 / 200m2 for visitors.
D1 Family Centres 1 / 5 staff,
1 / consulting room.
D1 Cultural Buildings 1 / 4 staff + 1 / 35m2
D1 Public Entertainment Buildings 1 / 4 staff,
1 / 20 seats.
D1 Schools and Colleges 1 / 5 staff,
1 / 3 students.
D1 Day Nurseries 1 / 5 staff,
1 / 30 children.
D1 Libraries 1 / 4 staff, 3 at Branch Library, 10 at Main Library.
D2 Places of Assembly 1 / 10m2
D2 Sports Grounds 1 / 4 staff, 1 / 4 players.
D2 Indoor Sports Centres 1 / 4 staff, 1 / 4 visitors.
- Garden Centres 1 / 100m2 for staff,
1 / 200m2 for customers.
- Petrol Station 1 / 5 staff.
1 / 100m2 shop floor where applicable.
- Service Garages 1 / 5 staff.
- Car Sales Showrooms 100m2 for staff, 200m2 for customers.
- Camping Sites 1 / 4 staff, 1 / 10 pitches.
- Marinas 1 / 10 moorings.
- Car Parks 1 / 10 parking spaces.
- Park and Ride Sites 1 / 10 parking spaces.
- Rail Stations 10 / Morning peak service.
- Bus Stations 4 / bus bay
- Key Bus stops 4 / stop

Motorcycle parking standards

Encouraging the use of powered two-wheeled vehicles (PTW) is a contentious issue. However, the use of such vehicles for short regular journeys also creates significant benefits, most notably in the form of reduced congestion and reduced land use for parking.

Parking standards for PTWs are represented as the minimum provision required, which reflects the advantages they have over the car and single occupancy vehicles in particular. As with cycle parking, these standards represent a basis for helping to provide sufficient PTW parking facilities throughout the Essex, Southend and Thurrock area. In addition to the provision of secure parking, developers will be required to demonstrate that they have considered additional needs for PTW users, such as locker, changing and shower facilities.

Government transport statistics show that the ratio between car and motorcycle ownership is 1:35. However, with regard to the congestion benefits that the motorcycle provides, a parking standard of one space, plus an additional space for every 10 car parking spaces, should be applied.

A strategy for powered two wheeled vehicles in Essex has been published by Essex County Council in 2001. Guidance on providing for PTW users is also available from motorcycle industry groups.

APPENDIX 1: SUMMARY OF CAR PARKING STANDARDS

For more detailed justification of these standards see main text.

Use Class Description of Land Use Standard (maximum)
A1 Shops food non-food

1 space per 14m2
1 space per 20m2

A2 Financial and Professional Services 1 space per 20m2
A3 Take away outlets Pubs and Clubs Restaurants Roadside Restaurants Transport Cafes 1 space per 20m2
1 space per 5m2,
1 space per 5m2,
1 space per 5m2,
1 lorry space per 2m2.
B1 Business 1 space per 30m2.
B2 General Industrial 1 space per 50m2.
B8 Storage or Distribution 1 space per 150m2.
C1 Hotels 1 space per bedroom (guest or staff).
C2 Residential Care Homes 1 space per resident staff + 1 space per 3 bed spaces/dwelling units.
C2 Hospitals 1 space per 4 staff + 1 space per 3 daily visitors.
C3 Residential Education Establishments 1 space per resident staff +1 space per 2 other staff.
C3 Dwelling houses - main urban areas/ good access to public 1 space per dwelling,
D1 Medical Centres 1 space per full time staff, +2 spaces per consulting room.
D1 Day care centres 1 space per full time staff, +1 spaces per 4 persons attending.
D1 Creches/Nurseries 1 space per full time staff, + waiting facilities where appropriate.
D1 Schools (Primary and Secondary Education) 1 space per 2 daytime teaching staff.
D1 Schools (Further and Higher Education) 1 space per 2 daytime teaching staff,+ 1 space per 15 students.
D1 Art Galleries/Museums/ Public Halls 1 space per 25m2 .
D1 Places of Worship /Libraries/Reading Rooms 1 space per 10m2 .
D2 Cinemas 1 space per 5 seats.
D2 Other uses (Assembly and Leisure) 1 space per 22m2 .

APPENDIX 2: DESIGN AND LAYOUT (inc. Disabled Parking Provision)

Acknowledgement is made to Kent County Council for assistance in the formulation of this design guidance.

As well as providing an appropriate level of car parking, it is important that new or extended developments incorporate good design for the layout, landscaping and lighting of parking. This should be user-friendly, and not interfere with the public highway or access adjacent to the parking area.

Planning for Pedestrians

The needs of pedestrians should be taken into account when designing the layout of car parks. This includes both those who have parked in the car park and those accessing the development on foot.

Pedestrian access to the development should be considered and pedestrian desire lines identified. Pedestrian access should then be provided along these routes rather than simply relying on the vehicular access.

Within the car park, provision should be made so that pedestrians walk through it easily and safely. The provision of raised footways through the car park and crossing points across main vehicle routes will help to alleviate conflict between pedestrians and vehicles.

A tactile distinction should be made between pedestrian areas and vehicular areas, in order that people with visual impairment can distinguish between the two. The provision of raised areas, footway areas and tactile paving at all dropped kerbs should achieve this.

Garage / Parking Bay Size

- Preferred bay size for cars 5.5m x 2.4m

- Minimum bay size 4.8m x 2.4m

- Minimum bay size where spaces are laid ‘end to end’ 6.0m x 2.4m

- Minimum garage size for cars 5.0m x 2.5m

Notes:

- The minimum dimensions for garages are in accordance with the Essex Design Guide. Experience has shown that garages are not likely to be used for the parking of a vehicle unless sufficient space is also incorporated within the garage for storage. Therefore, developers are encouraged to incorporate additional space in garage design.

- 'End to end' parking relates to parking spaces parallel to, and abutting, a carriageway, aisle or drive to allow vehicles to manoeuvre (or 'parallel park') into the bay when adjoining bays are occupied.

Minimum bay size for vans 7.5m x 3.5m

Minimum bay size for lorries:

Articulated 16.0m x 3.5m

Rigid 12.0 x 3.5m

Layout of Parking Areas

The most economical layout in terms of land usage is 90 degree parking with parallel aisles, and this is referred to as angle parking, which can only conveniently be used in car parks with one way aisles. Examples of parking arrangements are shown below.

Where a developer intends to employ a one-way system a clearly marked route for drivers should be set out using suitable signs and surface arrows.

Where entry and exit points are one-way, then appropriate signs will be required, and the planning permission will be conditional on this provision. Continued adherence to the entry and exit directions will be expected. At difficult sites this approach will enable safe vehicular access by maintaining appropriate sight lines.

Right angled parking spaces immediately adjacent to the public highway with direct access will not be permitted except in the case of private dwellings or industrial development, onto major or minor access roads, where care will be taken to ensure the safety of pedestrians.

Square parking

70 degree parking

45 degree parking

Mixed square and 45 degree parking


Dimensions of Aisles

A width of 6.0m is required for all aisles giving direct access to 90 degree car parking. Adequate provision must be made clear of the public highway for the movement and turning of lorries as set out in the Freight Transport Association's "Designing for Deliveries".

Layout of PTW Parking Areas

Preferred bay size PTW 2.5m x 1.5m

Minimum bay size 2m x 1m

With a minimum space of 1m between each bike.

Provision should be made in which to secure PTW to, via a number of methods usually requiring some secure fixing to the ground. There are a number of manufacturers of this equipment, and methods chosen may vary with locations.

Disabled Parking Provision

Guidance on the amount of parking provision that should be supplied for disabled people is outlined in the DETR’s Traffic Advisory Leaflet 5/95 - Parking For Disabled People, published in April 1995. Disabled parking spaces should be at least 3.3m wide and 6.6m long in order to allow the driver or passenger to get in and out of the vehicle safely, and to provide access to the rear of the vehicle for wheelchair storage. Where direct access is provided to a footway at the side or rear, spaces should be at least 2.7m or 4.8m respectively (see diagram below).


Disabled parking

Parking standard for disabled car parking:

Car Park Used For:
Employees and visitors to business premises

Car Park Size: Up to 200 Bays
Individual bays for each disabled employee plus 2 bays or 5% of total capacity, whichever is the greater

Car Park Size: Over 200 Bays:
6 bays plus 2% of total capacity

Car Park Used For:
Shopping, recreation and leisure

Car Park Size: Up to 200 Bays
3 bays or 6% of the total capacity, whichever is the greater

Car Park Size: Over 200 Bays
4 bays plus 4% of total capacity


APPENDIX 3: DESIGN AND LAYOUT OF CYCLE PARKING

Cycle Parking

Cycle parking within developments must be conveniently located near to the entrances of buildings, adequately lit, well signed and not hidden out of sight. Fully secure, weather protected parking is required for all employee cycle parking and for residential cycle parking. Weather protection may also be required for customer parking. Generally the acceptable types of cycle parking are ‘Sheffield stands’ or cycle lockers. Sheffield stands can accommodate 2 cycles provided that stands are placed 1m apart and at least 500mm from any wall. Stands that grip only the front wheel are not suitable, as they do not provide adequate support or security. Where more than 2 stands are required the ‘Toast Rack’ facility may be preferable.

More detailed information can be found in the Essex County Council
‘Designing for Cyclists – Guide to Good Practice’



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