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APPENDIX D

MONITORING FRAMEWORK

MONITORING FRAMEWORK

D.1 The Borough Council of Bedford has prepared this plan for the period between now and 2021 having had regard to the likelihood of available resources, the likely costs that may be incurred and the realistic view of what can be achieved in the timescale.

D.2 This Plan will be monitored and reviewed on an annual basis through the Annual Monitoring Report (AMR). The AMR will be published each December and cover the previous financial year 1st April – 31st March.

D.3 Table 6 sets out how the Borough Council proposes to monitor the effectiveness of the plan in delivering its objectives. Each of the 14 objectives is to be delivered by a specific policy or policies in the plan. The table also includes any relevant targets, the progress to which will be monitored. The table below sets out how each objective will be monitored in the AMR by setting a series of indicators. The references (C1b, L9 etc) included in the ‘indicators’ column of the table relate to the core and local indicators set out in the AMR.

 

TABLE 6 – TABLE OF PLAN OBJECTIVES AND RELATED POLICIES , TARGETS AND INDICATORS

 

DPD OBJECTIVE

DPD POLICIES RELATED TO THAT OBJECTIVE

ASSOCIATED TARGETS

INDICATORS

TRIGGERS

A MORE COMMERCIALLY ACTIVE AND COMPETITIVE RETAIL CENTRE AND A MORE STRUCTURED AND DISTINCTIVE CENTRE

1. To provide a framework for the regeneration of the town centre

Strategic Policy TC36:

Redevelopment Proposals

Overall Plan targets:

Retail: Up to 47,000 sq.m. net additional comparison goods retail floorspace by 2016 (30,000 sq.m. net by 2011)

Office: Sites TC13, TC15 and TC16

Leisure: Site TC7

C4a: Amount of completed retail, office and leisure development

C4a: Retail – Review the retail capacity study in 2011. If 30,000 sq.m. net is delivered before 2011 review the retail capacity study early. If 30,000 sq.m. net not delivered by 2011, take account of the reviewed retail capacity study and consider the need for alternative sites using sequential approach.

Office: If development on sites TC13, TC15 and TC16 are not on target to commence construction (see Table 5) consider alternative office site allocations in accordance with Core Strategy Policy CP5.

Leisure: Monitor leisure delivery on TC7 site on a 2 yearly basis. If TC7 site unlikely to deliver leisure development in line with target date for the commencement of construction (see Table 5) and phasing agreed in the planning permission, consider alternative site allocations.

2. To sustain and enhance the vitality and viability of the town centre as a whole whilst promoting reinvestment in the existing retail centre including the High Street

Strategic Policy

TC2: Improving the Retail Offer

TC3: Primary Shopping Area and Primary Shopping Frontages

TC4: Secondary Shopping Frontages

TC5: Office Development

TC7: New Retail Quarter – Bedford Town Centre West

TC8: New Retail Quarter – Retail Reinvestment and the High Street

TC9: Cultural Quarter – Castle Lane

TC11: Riverside Quarter – Riverside Square

TC36: Redevelopment Proposals

TC37: Leisure Uses

TC2 target: Provision for up to 47,000 sq.m net additional comparison goods retail floorspace by 2016 (30,000 sq.m. net by 2011) and up to 6,000 sq.m net additional convenience goods retail floorspace by 2011 within the town centre (primarily within Bedford Town Centre West and thereafter the Primary Shopping Area)

TC7 target: Provision of up to 30,000 sq.m net retail floorspace at Bedford Town Centre West by 2015/16

TC9 target: up to 600 sq.m. net retail floorspace by 2008/09

TC11 target: up to 600 sq.m. net retail floorspace by 2009/10

C4a: Amount of completed retail, office and leisure development

C4b: Amount of completed retail, office and leisure development in town centres

C4b: If the identified retail floorspace at the three key sites (Policies TC7, TC9 and TC11) is not likely to be delivered or is delivered more quickly than expected (see timescales in Table 5 for when construction expected to commence), an updated retail capacity study should be undertaken to consider the reasons for this, to review the amount of additional floorspace likely to be needed and to consider the scope if appropriate for expansion of the Primary Shopping Area. Alternative site allocations for retail should be made if necessary and having regard for the updated retail capacity evidence.

3. To create a more diverse and vital mix of uses including a major increase in the town’s retail offer

Strategic Policy

TC2: Improving the Retail Offer

TC3: Primary Shopping Area and Primary Shopping Frontages

TC7: New Retail Quarter – Bedford Town Centre West

TC8: New Retail Quarter – Retail Reinvestment and the High Street

TC9: Cultural Quarter – Castle Lane

TC11: Riverside Quarter – Riverside Square

TC16: Land at Lime Street

Strategic Policy target: Expand the town centre and improve the town’s shopping offer

TC2 target: Provision for up to 47,000 sq.m net additional comparison goods retail floorspace by 2016 (30,000 sq.m. net by 2011) and up to 6,000 sq.m net additional convenience goods retail floorspace by 2011 within the town centre (primarily within Bedford Town Centre West and thereafter the Primary Shopping Area)

TC7 target: Provision of up to 30,000 sq.m retail floorspace at Bedford Town Centre West. Provision of mixed use development including leisure, commercial and residential uses (300 residential units) by 2015/16

TC9 target: Provision of 105 residential units and up to 600 sq.m of retail floorspace and commercial (A3 use) use by 2008/09

TC11 target: Provision of 155 residential units and up to 600 sq.m of retail floorspace and commercial (A3 use) development by 2009/10

Overall Plan targets:

Office: Sites TC13, TC15 and TC16

Leisure: Site TC7

C4b: Amount of completed retail, office and leisure development in town centres

C4b: If the identified retail floorspace at the three key sites (Policies TC7, TC9 and TC11) is not likely to be delivered or is delivered more quickly than expected (see timescales in Table 5 for when construction expected to commence), an updated retail capacity study should be undertaken to consider the reasons for this, to review the amount of additional floorspace likely to be needed and to consider the scope if appropriate for expansion of the Primary Shopping Area. Alternative site allocations for retail should be made if necessary and having regard for the updated retail capacity evidence.

Office: If development on sites TC13, TC15 and TC16 are not expected to be built by target dates (see timescales in Table 5 for when construction expected to commence), consider alternative office site allocations.

Leisure: Monitor leisure delivery on TC7 site on a 2 yearly basis. If TC7 site unlikely to deliver leisure development in line with target date (see timescales in Table 5 for when construction expected to commence), consider alternative leisure allocations.

4. To achieve the successful integration of new development with the existing town centre

Strategic Policy

 

 

 

5. To strengthen the economy of the town centre and its role as an employment, administrative and educational centre

Strategic Policy

TC5: Office Development

TC7: New Retail Quarter – Bedford Town Centre West

TC12: Riverside Quarter – Shire Hall and the Bank building site

TC13: Station Quarter – Bedford Station

TC14: St Mary’s Quarter

TC15: Kingsway Quarter

TC16: Land at Lime Street

TC13 target: Provision of new office quarter by 2014/15

TC15 target: Provision of office and public administration uses by 2016/17

TC16 target: Provision of office development by 2011/12

C1b: Amount of floorspace developed for employment by type, in employment or regeneration areas

C1c: Amount of floorspace developed by employment type, which is on previously developed land

C4b: Amount of completed retail, office and leisure development in town centres

C1b/c and C4b: If office accommodation is not likely to be delivered on the three sites identified (Policies TC13, TC15 and TC16) in line with the date for commencement of construction in Table 5, further office sites should be sought in accordance with the search sequence set out in Core Strategy Policy CP5.

6. To improve access to the town centre through the provision of new public transport interchanges, new highway infrastructure, public transport priority when feasible, the use of park and ride facilities and improved facilities for pedestrians, cyclists, taxis and private hire vehicles. Where and when highway capacity can be increased, priority should be given to modes other than private cars

Strategic Policy

TC7: New Retail Quarter – Bedford Town Centre West

TC9: Cultural Quarter – Castle Lane

TC11: Riverside Quarter – Riverside Square

TC12: Riverside Quarter – Shire Hall and the Bank building site

TC13: Station Quarter – Bedford Station

TC15: Kingsway Quarter

TC17: Progress Ford, The Broadway

TC18: Junction/Network Improvements 2006-2011

TC19: Network Improvements post 2011

TC20: Development Related Network Improvements

TC21: Walking and Cycle Routes

TC22: Pedestrian Connections

TC23: Public Transport Interchange/Services

TC24: Parking

TC7 target: Provision of a new bus station, revised access, on and off site highway improvements, car and cycle parking, cycle storage

TC9 target: Provision of on and off site highway improvements and cycle parking

TC11 target: Provision of on and off site highway improvements, foot/cycle bridge, foot/cycle routes, cycle parking

TC12 target: Provision of highway improvements and cycle parking

TC13 target: Relocation of the railway station, revised access, car and cycle parking, pedestrian overbridge

TC15 target: Improved cycle/walking connections

TC17 target: On and off site highway improvements (as required)

TC18 target: Developer funded schemes

- Realignment of Greyfriars

- Midland Road/Greyfriars junction

- River Street/Greyfriars junction

- Improvements to Hassett Street /Beckett Street/Gwyn Street, Brace Street and Bromham Road

- Priory Street to be one-way northbound- Greenhill Street – closure

LTP/Other funded schemes

- Town Centre Traffic Management & control system

- Ford End Road/Prebend Street junction

- Right turn into the Embankment

TC19 target: Provision of a new river crossing at Batts Ford linking Kingsway and River Street and associated road network improvements

TC20 target: Developer funded improvements related to the TC7 site:

- Realignment of Greyfriars

- Midland Road/Greyfriars junction

- River Street/Greyfriars junction

- Improvements to Hassett Street /Beckett Street/ Gwyn Street, Brace Street and Bromham Road

- Priory Street to be one-way northbound TC21 target: Promote walking and cycle routes at:

- Midland Road corridor (for pedestrians & cyclists)

- north-south spine linking the bus station redevelopment via the proposed Landmark Bridge to Kingsway (for pedestrians & cyclists)

- River Street corridor

- routes along the river

- east-west route through Bedford Town Centre West site (for pedestrians and cyclists)

- High Street corridor for north-south route through the town centre (for pedestrians & cyclists)

- The Grove, Newnham Street and Castle Lane

TC22 target: Improvement in the number and quality of connections including:

- connections within the centre including between the existing centre and Castle Lane and Bedford Town Centre West;

- connections between the centre and river corridor, including provision of new foot/cycle bridges;

- connections between the centre and railway station

TC23 target: Retention of a bus station, improved bus/rail interchange at the railway station and expansion of park and ride facilities

L3: Level of proposed transport infrastructure set out in the RSS and LTP2 that has been achieved

Junction improvements completedNumber of new river crossings delivered

Park and Ride facilities operationalCycle improvements achieved

Traffic levels

Policies TC7, TC9, TC11, TC12, TC13, TC15 and TC17 include reference to on/off site highway improvement measures. Transport Assessments for individual planning applications will consider what specific improvements may be required as a consequence of the proposed development. Delivery of the other transport measures in the policies (walking routes, cycle routes etc) will be secured through the planning applications.

Policies TC18 and TC19: The precise timing of the improvements (not including developer funded schemes – see TC20 below) will be informed by the Stage 2 Transportation Study in 2008/09. Delivery of the improvements will be monitored against the recommendations in the study. If improvements are not being delivered, the reasons for this will be established and alternative means of delivery will be sought.

Policy TC20: Delivery will be monitored against the S106 agreement and agreed phasing. Any delivery issues will relate to the TC7 site (see C4b trigger above).

Policies TC21 and TC22: The routes are to be delivered via developer contributions and LTP funding and delivery monitored on an annual basis. If routes are not being delivered, the reasons for this will be established and alternative means of delivery will be sought.

Policy TC23: Delivery of the service improvements listed will be delivered via developer contributions and LTP/CIF/GAF funding. The precise timing of the improvements will be informed by the Stage 2 Transportation Study in 2008/09. Delivery of the improvements will be monitored against the recommendations in the study.

7. To improve the number and quality of the connections within the town centre, and between the centre and the river and railway station

Strategic Policy

TC11: Riverside Quarter – Riverside Square

TC13: Station Quarter – Bedford Station

TC14: St Mary’s Quarter – provision of bridges

TC15: Kingsway Quarter

TC21: Walking and Cycle Routes

TC22: Pedestrian Connections

TC29: Riverside Frontages

TC30: Riverside Development

TC11 target: Provision of a new foot/cycle bridge across the river

TC13 target: Relocation of the railway station

TC21 target: Promote walking and cycle routes at:

- Midland Road corridor (for pedestrians & cyclists)

- north-south spine linking the bus station redevelopment via the proposed Landmark Bridge to Kingsway (for pedestrians & cyclists)

- River Street corridor

- routes along the river

- east-west route through Bedford Town Centre West site (for pedestrians and cyclists)

- High Street corridor for north-south route through the town centre (for pedestrians & cyclists)

- The Grove, Newnham Street and Castle Lane TC22 target: Improvement in the number and quality of connections including:

- connections within the centre including between the existing centre and Castle Lane and Bedford Town Centre West;

- connections between the centre and river corridor, including provision of new foot/cycle bridges;

- connections between the centre and railway station

Number of new river crossings completed Number of pedestrian/ cycle connections improved Traffic levels

Policies TC11 and TC13: Development of the foot/cycle bridge and the relocation of the railway station will be monitored against the phasing agreed in the relevant planning permissions.

Policies TC21 and TC22: The routes are to be delivered via developer contributions and LTP funding and delivery monitored on an annual basis. If routes are not being delivered, the reasons for this will be established and alternative means of delivery will be sought.

8. To achieve a significant growth in town centre living in order to enhance the vitality and viability of the centre

Strategic Policy

TC7: New Retail Quarter – Bedford Town Centre West

TC8: New Retail Quarter – Retail Reinvestment and the High Street

TC9: Cultural Quarter – Castle Lane

TC10: Cultural Quarter – Cecil Higgins Art Gallery & Bedford Museum

TC11: Riverside Quarter – Riverside Square

TC13: Station Quarter – Bedford Station

TC15: Kingsway Quarter

TC16: Land at Lime Street

TC17: Progress Ford The Broadway

TC26: Living over the Shop

TC7 target:

Provision of 300 residential unitsTC9 target:

Provision of 104 residential unitsTC10 target:

Provision of 20 residential unitsTC11 target:

Provision of 155 residential unitsTC13 target:

Provision of 180 residential unitsTC15 target:

Provision of 300 residential unitsTC16 target:

Provision of 10 residential units

TC17 target: Provision of 85 residential units

Overall target: 1154 residential units

Number of units of housing completed within the Plan area

If actual housing delivery varies by more than 20% outside expected delivery (see Appendix C Housing Trajectory) reasons for this should be established and appropriate responses considered. This could include a review of town centre housing allocations. Delivery against the plan’s housing requirement of 1154 will be monitored on a 5 year rolling basis.

9. To provide affordable housing in a managed town centre reflecting the needs of the community with the aim of securing a mixed and balanced town centre community

Strategic Policy

TC7: New Retail Quarter – Bedford Town Centre West

TC8: New Retail Quarter – Retail Reinvestment and the High Street

TC9: Cultural Quarter – Castle Lane

TC11: Riverside Quarter – Riverside Square

TC13: Station Quarter – Bedford Station

TC15: Kingsway Quarter

TC16: Land at Lime StreetTC17: Progress Ford The Broadway

TC25: Housing Mix

TC26: Living over the Shop

TC7 target: A proportion of the 300 residential units

TC9 target: A proportion of the 104 residential units

TC10 target: A proportion of the 20 residential units

TC11 target: A proportion of the 155 residential units

TC13 target: A proportion of the 180 residential units

TC15 target: A proportion of the 300 residential units

TC16 target: A proportion of the 10 residential units

TC17 target: A proportion of the 85 residential units

Overall target: A proportion of the 1154 residential units

C2d: Affordable housing completions

If actual housing delivery varies by more than 20% outside expected delivery (see Appendix C Housing Trajectory) reasons for this should be established and appropriate responses considered. This could include a review of town centre housing allocations. Delivery against the plan’s housing requirement of 1154 will be monitored on a 5 year rolling basis.

10. To protect, promote and enhance Bedford’s natural and built heritage, cultural attractions and role as a tourist destination as an integral part of the strategy to regenerate the town centre

Strategic Policy

TC8: New Retail Quarter – Retail Reinvestment and the High Street

TC9: Cultural Quarter – Castle Lane

TC10: Cultural Quarter – Cecil Higgins Art Gallery & Bedford Museum – refurbishment

TC12: Riverside Quarter – Shire Hall and the Bank building site – retention and refurbishment of listed buildings

TC14: St Mary’s Quarter – potential for a mini marina

TC27: Heritage

TC28: Tourism

 

L20: Quality of new development in terms of design and landscaping and respecting local character

 

11. To achieve high quality urban design with high quality materials and finishes

TC36: Redevelopment Proposals

TC39: Urban Design Principles

 

L20: Quality of new development in terms of design and landscaping and respecting local character

 

A WELL MANAGED TOWN CENTRE

12. To create a town centre which is safe, attractive and in which people will want to live, shop, work and spend their leisure time

Strategic Policy

TC32: Public Spaces

TC34: Town Centre Management

TC35: Town Centre Amenity

TC37: Leisure Uses

 

L20: Quality of new development in terms of design and landscaping and respecting local character

 

13. To achieve high quality public realm improvements including provision for management and maintenance

Strategic Policy

TC8: New Retail Quarter – Retail Reinvestment and the High Street

TC11: Riverside Quarter – Riverside Square

TC15: Kingsway Quarter

TC17: Progress Ford The Broadway

TC30: Riverside Development

TC32: Public Spaces

TC36: Redevelopment Proposals

 

Number of new public spaces created/existing public spaces improved

 

14. To ensure that new development and other partner agencies contribute to the delivery of the Council’s strategy for the town centre as a whole, including the provision of infrastructure

TC20: Development Related Network Improvements

TC21: Walking and Cycle Routes

TC40: Developer Contributions

TC20 Target: Developer funded improvements related to the TC7 site:

- Realignment of Greyfriars

- Midland Road/Greyfriars junction

- River Street/Greyfriars junction

- Improvements to Hassett Street/ Beckett Street/ Gwyn Street, Brace Street and Bromham Road

- Priory Street to be one-way northbound

Level of infrastructure improvements secured by means of condition/S106 agreements or town centre/Plan area sites

Policy TC20: Delivery will be monitored against the S106 agreement and agreed phasing. Any delivery issues will relate to the TC7 site (see C4b trigger above)

 

APPENDIX E

URBAN DESIGN PRINCIPLES

INTRODUCTION

E.1 In preparing proposals for the redevelopment of sites, developers will need to address a number of key urban design principles. These are based on By Design. Urban Design in the Planning System: Towards Better Practice which was published by the Department of the Environment, Transport and the Regions and the Commission for Architecture & The Built Environment in May 2000.

E.2 The aim of By Design is to promote higher standards of urban design and it concludes that successful streets, spaces, towns and cities tend to have common characteristics. These factors have been analysed and distilled into a series of principles or objectives for good urban design. They are:-

  • CHARACTER

A place should have its own identity and a character that is locally distinctive in terms of both townscape and landscape.

  • CONTINUITY AND ENCLOSURE

A place should have public and private spaces which are clearly defined by development and which promotes the continuity of street frontages.

  • QUALITY OF THE PUBLIC REALM

A place with attractive and successful public spaces and routes which are safe, attractive and accessible by all members of society including disabled and elderly people.

  • EASE OF MOVEMENT

A place that is easy to get to and move through, which promotes accessibility and permeability, connects with its surroundings, puts people before traffic and integrates land uses and transport.

  • LEGIBILITY

A place that has a clear image and is easy to understand by incorporating recognisable routes, junctions and landmarks.

  • ADAPTABILITY

A place that can change easily in response to changing social, technological and economic conditions.

  • DIVERSITY

A place with variety and choice through a mix of different land uses.

URBAN DESIGN FRAMEWORK

This section sets down the Council’s vision of how the key urban design principles should be applied.

  • CHARACTER

E.4 The new development must respect the local distinctiveness of its context and create a series of areas, which are themselves, distinctive. This will help to assimilate development into the town centre and will also help to create development that is highly legible and easily understood.

E.5 The Bedford Town Centre Development Framework Study (March 2005) has identified several character areas within Bedford and these have formed the basis of new urban quarters. Developers will need to demonstrate how their proposals achieve well integrated, mixed use development which respects the Council’s aspirations to concentrate particular uses within these urban quarters.

E.6 Six urban quarters have been identified and these are shown on Figure 2. They are:

RETAIL QUARTER

This is the main retail core of the town centre comprising the Harpur and Howard Centres, Midland Road, Allhallows and the bus station site. Most of this area has been wholly or partially pedestrianised and it contains a wide variety of architectural styles. The 1960’s bus station and adjoining buildings provide Bedford’s greatest redevelopment opportunity to improve and expand the town’s retail offer. As a result, the retail and urban living quarter will expand in size and cover a greater proportion of the town centre.

CULTURAL QUARTER

This is focused on Castle Lane, Cecil Higgins Art Gallery & Bedford Museum and the Castle Mound. This forms part of the original settlement of Bedford and is of great significance for its historic associations and archaeology related to the Castle Mound. There is a need to regenerate this area for a mixture of uses including residential and to reconnect it with the High Street, the river and the rest of the town centre.

RIVERSIDE QUARTER

The River Great Ouse provides a spectacular setting for the town and is one of Bedford’s main assets. Both the County and the Town Bridges provide key landmarks and the northern bank is characterised by 3-4 storey buildings. The Swan Hotel and the Shire Hall are particularly noteworthy. It is recognised however that an iconic building will be inherently of a different order to the existing townscape and will have to be considered in its own right.

STATION QUARTER

The area around the railway station comprises a mix of commercial and other uses that have enjoyed better days and provides a less than ideal gateway to the town centre. Expansive areas of surface car parking dominate yet provide the opportunity for development. The definition of the area as a ‘Quarter’ is more about its potential than its existing character.

ST MARY'S QUARTER

The southern bank of the river is predominantly enclosed by trees and open parkland with some examples of less attractive buildings, including the Moat House Hotel, County Hall and the group of buildings which form Bedford College. The scale of buildings is also greater on the southern bank. The key opportunity here is to enhance the quality of the buildings fronting onto the river corridor and to achieve greater integration between the river and the town centre.

KINGSWAY QUARTER

This comprises an ill-defined edge and approach to the town centre. It comprises the BT Tower and low grade retail sheds and offices. These create a series of standalone buildings which give little definition to the street and sense of enclosure. This is particularly the case with the Kingsway. There is an opportunity to redevelop parts of this quarter to create a tighter knit development of streets and blocks.

 

E.7 In addition the Bedford Conservation Area forms an overlapping area of character. This covers the historic centre of the town focused around St. Paul’s Square, Harpur Square, Harpur Street, Silver Street and extending to the High Street and Castle Lane and contains a significant concentration of listed buildings. Key buildings include St. Paul’s Church, Shire Hall, the Corn Exchange, Harpur Suite and the old Town Hall. It is characterised by narrow frontages, a vertical emphasis to the buildings and a wide variety of architectural styles and details.

  • CONTINUITY AND ENCLOSURE

E.8 The relationship between buildings and public spaces is crucial if a successful place is to be created. The new development should be laid out so that there is a clear distinction between public and private space with the public domain being both overlooked and accessible. This is best achieved by creating layouts based on a block structure. This is a traditional form of development in town centres and Bedford is no exception.

E.9 The block structure comprises a series of streets and blocks which ensure that new buildings front onto the street and provide a ‘public face’, with service yards, parking areas and private space to the rear. Thus buildings should have ‘public fronts’ and ‘private backs.’ Development should follow the perimeter of the block along a common building line (without major setbacks) to foster a strong sense of enclosure.

E.10 The use of a block structure will also ensure that new development integrates successfully into the existing town centre.

  • QUALITY IN THE PUBLIC REALM

E.11 Bedford town centre already comprises a number of public spaces. These include Harpur Square, St. Paul’s Square, Allhallows/Church Square, Silver Street and St. Mary’s Gardens. Most of these have been made into pedestrian zones or have limited vehicular access. As well as facilitating pedestrian movement within the centre, they provide a setting for a wide range of activities such as markets, Victorian Fair and other events (Bedford by the Sea etc.). As a result, they are a major element in defining Bedford’s ‘sense of place’.

E.12 The redevelopment of key sites provides the opportunity to create new public spaces, which will extend the existing network. This is particularly the case with the Bedford Town Centre West, Castle Lane and Riverside Square sites. In the latter case, the site lends itself to the provision of a major new south-facing public square adjacent to the river which will act as a positive symbol of Bedford’s renaissance.

E.13 The aim should be to create a series of high quality public spaces which are attractive, safe, clean and pedestrian friendly. They should also be designed to support a wide range of activities and events. Consideration should be given to how the spaces will connect with each other to form a sequence of streets and squares, thus enhancing legibility and movement. Put simply, the spaces should be designed as a series of ‘beads on a chain.’ Public art should also be integrated into buildings and spaces to enhance character and legibility and create a visually rich environment.

E.14 It is also vital that a mechanism is put in place to ensure that these are maintained to a high standard in perpetuity, and the Borough Council will expect all development sites within the centre to contribute towards that objective.

  • EASE OF MOVEMENT

E.15 This principle has three distinct elements – connections, permeability and the integration of land use and transport. Integral to the strategy is the use of development to achieve improved connections:-

  • Between the town centre and adjoining areas. An example is the need to provide better linkages between the northern and southern banks of the river.

  • Between sites within the centre. The prime example is the need to integrate the Castle Lane site with both the High Street and the Embankment.

  • Between the town centre and the riverside corridor to facilitate its use for leisure and recreation.

  • Between the town centre and the railway station, where connections between the two are poorly defined.

E.16 This will create a series of new routes which will link the development sites together and achieve greater integration between the new quarters and the town centre.

E.17 Secondly, the strategy seeks to maximise permeability and provide a choice of routes through the development, removing physical barriers to movement by all members of the community including those with disabilities, families, young children and the elderly. This will be greatly enhanced through the use of the block structure referred to above.

E.18 Thirdly, it is important that the different uses proposed are easily accessible on foot, by cycle and by public transport. The re-provision of a new bus station and enhanced connections with the railway station will go some way towards greater integration of the town centre with non-car modes. They also represent key elements in the transportation strategy.

  • LEGIBILITY

E.19 Legibility relates to how well a development is structured so as to help people find their way around. New development is often criticised for offering little to remember when moving through it. This results in a lack of orientation and a poor ‘mental image’. Research has shown that five types of physical features play a key role in establishing a strong mental image of a place. These are paths, nodes, landmarks, edges and districts.

PATHS

E.20 These are channels of movement and relate primarily to main roads although in Bedford's case, the river corridor also falls into this category. The most significant paths include:-

  • The Broadway/High Street/St. Mary’s Street/St. John’s Street.

  • St. Peter’s Street/Dame Alice Street/Bromham Road.

  • Horne Lane/River Street/Greyfriars.

  • The Embankment.

  • NODES

E.21 These are focal points such as junctions or public spaces. The main nodes within the town centre are:-

  • St. Paul’s Square.

  • Harpur Square.

  • Church Square

  • High Street/Dame Alice Street/St. Peter’s Street junction and St. Peter’s Green.

  • St. John’s roundabout.

  • Bromham Road/Union Street/Greyfriars junction.

E.22 More minor nodes include:

  • The Greyfriars roundabout access to the bus station.

  • The Silver Street/High Street/Mill Street junction.

  • Castle Mound.

E.23 The provision of a new bus station facility has potential to create a new node within the town centre.

E.24 Many of these nodes provide key ‘gateways’ into the town and new development should consider these and enhance the sense of arrival into the town centre.

  • LANDMARKS

E.25 These are reference points and could be prominent buildings, particular uses, or landscape features. They help people to orientate themselves when moving through the town centre and help to create a strong sense of place and local identity. Opportunities exist to create a series of new landmark buildings of various scales and forms. Landmark buildings are not necessarily tall buildings but could be buildings of special architectural quality and treatment.

E.26 In producing schemes for the key development sites, designers need to consider the scope for the introduction of landmark features so as to enhance the legibility of the town centre as a whole. Facades should be articulated with such features as balconies, bay or other projecting windows and minor set backs to reinforce the form of the building and create visual interest.

E.27 In regenerating the town centre it is vital that development has regard to scale including its relationship with the rest of the town centre. The most sensitive areas include St. Paul’s Square, Harpur Square, High Street and Castle Lane. Here buildings are generally between 2-4 storeys in height and are arranged in tightly knit groups. Building footprints are relatively small and where larger buildings do occur, these are integral to the street frontage rather than free standing. A good example of this is the Corn Exchange.

E.28 Within this area, development should have significant regard to the scale and form of the existing built form although some scope for larger scale buildings may exist.

E.29 Elsewhere, scale is less of a constraint. Indeed larger scale buildings can make a positive contribution to defining the urban character of these quarters and the creation of landmarks to enhance legibility.

E.30 In addition, in considering the scale of new development it is important to consider the existing short, middle and long distance views within the existing town centre, and how new development can retain and enhance these. Of particular importance is the need to retain views of St. Paul’s Church as the prime landmark within both the town centre and the wider area. Views along the river corridor are also critical and need to be taken into account.

  • EDGES

E.31 These divide areas of different character or uses and are often linear in nature. In Bedford’s case, the most prominent edges comprise the northern and southern boundaries of the river corridor. There is potential to consolidate and strengthen these edges through the development of sites such as Riverside Square. Larger scale development can also have a role in achieving this.

  • DISTRICTS

E.32These are sections of the development which have a distinctive character. This character could be derived from the physical nature of the buildings and spaces as well as the uses and activities associated with those areas. The new development will create seven potential districts focused on the ‘quarters’ described above.

ADAPTABILITY

E.33 Buildings and spaces should support a range of different activities and have the flexibility to change over time. This is particularly relevant in the case of large footprint buildings where consideration should be given to potential scope for sub-division at some time in the future. A range of building typologies is essential to creating a robust and adaptable built fabric.

E.34 Successful urban mixed-use development breaks down large development parcels into smaller units. The following principles apply:

In frontages which line the main pedestrian dominated routes, individual plots should generally be no wider than 12 metres. This creates development which is sometimes referred to as having a ‘fine grain’. Where proposals emerge for larger developments along these routes, facades will need to be broken down to avoid the creation of monotonous frontages. This may mean that large format buildings such as supermarkets and multi-storey car parks need to be ‘lined’ with smaller units in order to give them a more attractive ‘public face’.

The ground floors of all buildings should be clearly defined. Where appropriate, this can take the form of shopfronts, entrances, different more robust materials, and colonnades. Ground floors should also have a higher floor to ceiling height than the storeys above.

Access to buildings should be from the street with entrances to ground floor units. Entrances should be close together to encourage activity and particular attention should be given to the design of buildings which ‘turn the corner.’

  • DIVERSITY

E.35 Given their town centre location, there is scope to redevelop the key sites for a mixture of uses, the scope of which will vary within each quarter. These will include a mixture of new retail, residential, commercial and leisure uses. The greater emphasis on urban living will enhance the vitality of the town centre and assist with natural surveillance. As a result most of the redevelopment schemes will contain an element of residential use.

E.36 The vision of a vital town centre requires the provision of mixed-use development to create sufficient density to make a vibrant and sustainable place. In determining the density of development, accessibility to public transport, the town centre and the local site context will be critical considerations.

APPENDIX F

PARKING STANDARDS

PARKING STANDARDS

F.1 Parking provision will need to be determined with reference to the needs of the site and the town centre and remainder of the Plan area as a whole, taking account of overall on-street and off-street provision and current/future management. In any event parking levels should not exceed the maximum standards set out in Table 7.

 

TABLE 7 MAXIMUM PARKING STANDARDS

 

TYPE OF DEVELOPMENT

MAXIMUM STANDARD FOR NEW DEVELOPMENT

Non Food Retail (A1)

1 space per 30 sq.m

Food Retail

1 space per 20 sq.m

Food and Drink (A3)

1 space per 30 sq.m

Offices/Business (B1)

1 space per 45 sq.m

Leisure (D2)

1 space per 40 sq.m

Hotel Conference Facilities/Cinema (D2)

1 space per 2 rooms (hotel)

1 space per 5 seats

Residential

1 per unit on average

 

F.2 Where redevelopment opportunities arise, consideration should be given to the provision of underground parking where this is technically and financially feasible.

 

APPENDIX G

EXISTING & FUTURE PARKING PROVISION

 

TABLE 8 EXISTING PARKING PROVISION

 

LOCATION

NO. OF SPACES

COMMENT

Castle Lane

223

Public car parking will be lost following the redevelopment of the site.

Riverside Square

146

Public car parking will be lost following the redevelopment of the site.

Allhallows MSCP

577

This will be re-provided as part of the Bedford town centre west development.

Lurke Street MSCP

820

 

River Street MSCP

487

 

Queen Street MSCP

652

 

Harpur Centre

97

Privately owned

Melbourne Street

197

Could have potential for redevelopment – to be explored through the proposed development brief for the Kingsway.

St Peter’s Street

116

 

Bedford Station

613

 

Sub Total

3928

 

Elstow Park & Ride

480

Currently operational

Total provision

4408

 

FUTURE PARKING PROVISION

 

LOCATION

NO. OF SPACES

COMMENT

Allhallows MSCP

780 *

(an additional 200 spaces will be available be for residents)*

Lurke Street MSCP

820

 

River Street MSCP

487

 

Queen Street MSCP

652

 

Harpur Centre

97

Privately owned

Melbourne Street

197

 

St Peter’s Street

116

 

Bedford Station

900*

 

Sub Total

4049

 

Elstow Park & Ride

480

Currently operational

Biddenham Loop Park & Ride

500

To be required as part of the development of the Biddenham Loop.

Land off the A6 (Clapham Road) Park & Ride

500

To be required as part of the development of land to the north of Bromham Road.

Cardington Road Park & Ride

250

Phase 1

Total provision

5779

 

* Provisional figure – to be determined at planning application stage.

 

APPENDIX H

STRATEGIC FLOOD RISK ASSESSMENT

H.1 In order to inform the Plan, the Council has undertaken a Strategic Flood Risk Assessment and this forms one of the supporting documents. The specific objectives of the study were to:-

  • Provide a reference and policy document to inform the Area Action Plan and future development plans for town centre.

  • Ensure that the Borough Council is in line with recommendations in the current Planning Policy Guidance Note 25. Emerging guidance in the form of the consultation draft of Planning Policy Statement 25 has also been taken into account.

  • Provide a reference and policy document for private and commercial development of potential risks associated with development proposals and their obligations under the latest planning guidance.

H.2 All of the key areas of change identified in the preferred option and carried forward into the submission version of the Plan, and this the adopted Plan were assessed for flood risk and against both existing and emerging guidance.

H.3 The principal conclusion of the Strategic Flood Risk Assessment is that the Plan is deliverable in terms of flood risk. On the basis of the information contained in that report, the proposed key sites are generally sustainable in terms of flood risk and are suitable for the proposed land uses, subject to the identification and implementation of appropriate mitigation measures.

H.4 As individual sites come forward for development, site specific flood risk assessments will need to be prepared at that time.

 

APPENDIX I

GLOSSARY OF TERMS

A1: Shops and other high street uses.

A2: Financial and professional services available to the general public such as Accountants, Solicitors, Building Societies and Banks.

A3: Restaurants and cafes.

A4: Drinking establishments.

A5: Hot food takeaways.

B1: Businesses including main offices, high tech and light industry.

Affordable Housing: housing, whether for rent, shared ownership or outright purchase, provided at a cost considered affordable in relation to incomes that are average or below average, or in relation to the price of general market housing.

Area Action Plan: used to provide a planning framework for areas of change and areas of conservation. Area Action Plans have the status of Development Plan Documents.

Bedford Development Framework: the local name of the Local Development Framework for Bedford Borough Council.

Brownfield Land: land that has been previously developed.

Community Plan for the Borough of Bedford 2004 - 2010: the plan for Bedford Borough Council published in January 2005. The key themes are promoting community safety, providing housing and building communities, improving the environment, improving health, strengthening the economy, developing learning opportunities and skills, creating better transport, promoting leisure, and including everyone.

Comparison Shopping: goods such as clothes and electrical equipment, for which the consumer generally expects to direct time and effort into visiting a range of shops before making a choice.

Compulsory Purchase Order: an order issued by the government or a local authority to acquire land or buildings for public interest purposes. For example, for the construction of a major road or the redevelopment of certain brownfield sites.

Conservation Areas: under the Planning (Listed Buildings and Conservation Areas) Act 1990, local planning authorities are able to designate as conservation areas any ‘areas of special architectural or historic interest, the character of which it is desirable to preserve or enhance’.

Convenience Shopping: goods such as food, newspapers and drink, which tend to be purchased regularly and for which convenience of purchase is therefore important.

Core Strategy and Rural Issues Plan: the long-term spatial vision and strategy for the local planning authority area, including the key strategic policies and proposals to deliver that vision. The Plan has the status of Development Plan Documents.

Corporate Plan: the Council’s priorities are that the Council will be a listening council, a clean and green borough, a safer borough, a prosperous borough, an enjoyable borough and achieve a balanced housing market.

De-trafficking: the removal of certain categories of traffic.

Development Briefs: prepared by the Borough Council as a detailed statement of its planning policies for a particular site and its aspirations in terms of uses, layout and design principles.

Development Plan: under the Planning Acts, this is the prime consideration in the determination of planning applications. Under the new system it consists of all Development Plan Documents and the Regional Spatial Strategy.

Development Plan Documents: spatial planning document prepared by the local planning authority that is subject to independent public examination. They can cover a range of issues, and will set out the main spatial strategy, policies and proposals of the Council.

East of England Plan: provides the comprehensive planning regional spatial strategy for the whole of the Eastern Region and, in Bedford’s case, will provide development targets for the part of the borough not covered by the Milton Keynes & South Midlands Sub-Regional Strategy.

Edge-of-centre: a location that is well connected to and within easy walking distance to retail of up to 300 metres of the primary shopping area and for office development located outside the town centre but within 500 metres of a public transport interchange, including railway and bus stations, within the urban area. For all other main town centre uses this is likely to be within 300 metres of a town centre boundary. A site is not well connected to a centre where it is physically separated from it by a barrier such as a major road, railway line or river and there is no existing or proposed pedestrian route which provides safe and convenient access to the centre.

Evening Economy: use of the town centre for a range of leisure and recreation uses after normal shopping hours.

Frontage: the surroundings of an edge of a building or space. Active frontages are the edge of a building or space with windows and doors as opposed to blank walls, fences and garages. Dead frontages are the edge of a building or space with no opportunity for surveillance from the building or space.

Gateways: key entry points into the town centre.

Gross Domestic Product: the total value of all goods and services produced by a Country in a specified period (usually annually) less income from foreign investment.

Growth Area: the area designated for growth, in terms of housing and employment development. In Bedford Borough the Growth Area is located within Bedford, Kempston and the northern Marston Vale.

Infill Development: development of a relatively small gap between existing buildings.

Interchange: combined road, rail and other transport services.

Inward Investment: new business investment or expansion of an existing investment into the borough area from abroad or within Great Britain.

Issues and Options: produced during the early production stage of the preparation of Development Plan Documents and may be issued for consultation to meet the requirements of Regulation 25.

Legibility: the ease by which people can find their way around the town centre.

Listed Buildings: under the Planning (Listed Buildings and Conservation Areas) Act 1990, the Secretary of State for National Heritage has a statutory duty to compile lists of buildings of special architectural or historic interest. Graded I, II* or II to reflect their importance, permission is required for works which may affect their character or appearance.

Local Delivery Vehicle (LDV): an organisation set up to help deliver planned growth in the area.

Local Development Documents: generic term for documents that can be included in the Local Development Framework. It comprises Development Plan Documents, Supplementary Planning Documents and the Statement of Community Involvement.

Local Development Framework: a portfolio of Local Development Documents that provides the framework for delivering the spatial strategy of the area.

Local Development Scheme: rolling three-year project plan for the preparation of Local Development Documents.

Local Plan: part of the Development Plan under the old system. Statutory district-wide document prepared under the old system that sets out land use policies and proposals for the area.

Local Transport Plan: five-year strategy prepared by the County Council for the development of local, integrated transport, supported by a programme of transport improvements. It is used to bid to government for funding transport improvements.

Market Share: the extent to which Bedford captures trade from competing centres.

Milton Keynes & South Midlands Sub-Regional Strategy: strategy relating to the part of the borough (Bedford, Kempston and the northern Marston Vale) which has been identified by the government as a growth area.

Mixed-Use Development: in the past there has been a tendency to define areas of single land uses. Mixed-use development promotes the integration and diversity of land uses which has benefits such as reducing the need to travel and deterring criminal activity by generating different activities at different times of the day.

Modal Shift: the movement from road, rail and other transport services. Out-of-centre: a location which is not in or on the edge of a centre but not necessarily outside the urban area.

Plan Area: the area encompassed by the Area Action Plan boundary.

Permeability: the degree to which an area has a variety of routes through it.

Planning Obligation/Section 106 Legal Agreement: these are legal agreements between a local planning authority and a developer, or undertakings offered unilaterally by a developer, secured in the context of granting a planning consent to ensure that certain extra works related to a development are undertaken.

Preferred Options Document: produced as part of the preparation of Development Plan Documents, and is issued for formal public participation as required by Regulation 26.

Planning Policy Guidance: statements of government policy on a range of issues – being replaced over time by Planning Policy Statements.

Planning Policy Statement: new name for Planning Policy Guidance – statement of government policy on a range of issues.

Primary Shopping Area: the area where Class A1 Uses (shops) predominate.

Primary Shopping Frontage: the key shopping frontages within the primary shopping area.

Proposals Map: illustrates policies and proposals in Development Plan Documents.

Public Art: permanent or temporary physical works of art visible to the general public, whether part of a building or freestanding. For example, sculpture, lighting effects, street furniture, paving, railings and signs.

Public Realm: public spaces which include streets and squares.

Regeneration: the economic, social and environmental renewal and improvement of an area.

Regional Centre: Bedford is defined as a regional centre for retail in the draft East of England Plan.

Regional Spatial Strategy: a statutory document under the new system that replaces Regional Planning Guidance setting out the regional spatial strategy and policies. New Local Development Documents will have to be in accordance with it. Bedford Borough Council’s Regional Spatial Strategy is currently the draft East of England Plan.

Renewable Energy: energy derived from sources that are available in an unlimited supply. Retail Core: See Primary Shopping Area

Saved Policies or Plans: existing adopted development plans are saved for three years from the date of commencement of the Act. The Local Development Scheme sets out the authority’s saved policies.

Scheduled Ancient Monuments: under the Ancient Monuments and Archaeological Areas Act 1979, the Secretary of State for National Heritage is required to compile and maintain a schedule of monuments of national importance. The monuments are statutorily protected in a similar way to listed buildings.

Secondary Shopping Area: the area where there is a diversity of Class A uses.

Secondary Shopping Frontage: a retailing area, secondary to the primary shopping frontage, that provides greater opportunities for a diversity of uses.

Statement of Community Involvement: sets out the approach of the authority to involving the community in the preparation, alteration and review of Local Development Documents and in the consideration of significant planning applications.

Sub-Region: the Milton Keynes & South Midlands sub-region is located in southern central England, between London and the wider Midlands. Its largest urban centres are Bedford/Kempston, Milton Keynes, Northampton, Luton, Dunstable and Houghton Regis. The sub-region straddles the three regions of the East of England, the East Midlands and the South East.

Supplementary Planning Documents: provides supplementary information in respect of the policies in Development Plan Documents. They do not form part of the Development Plan and are not subject to independent examination.

Sustainability Appraisal: a social, economic and environmental appraisal of strategy, policies and proposals that is required for the Regional Spatial Strategy, all Development Plan Documents and Supplementary Planning Documents.

Sustainable Development: meets the present needs without compromising those of future generations.

Sustainable Communities Plan: a programme issued by the government to set the framework for delivering sustainable communities over the next 15-20 years. The main areas of focus are sustainable communities, housing supply, new growth areas, decent homes, and countryside and local environment.

Town Centre: the principal centre in the local authority area. It is the defined area, including the primary shopping area and areas of predominantly leisure, business and other main town centre uses within or adjacent to the primary shopping area. The extent of the town centre is defined on the Proposals Map.

Townscape: the visual appearance of a built up area, such as the street pattern, furnishings and landscaping that form the built environment.

Urban Design: the art of making places. Urban design involves the design of buildings, groups of buildings, spaces and landscapes, in villages, towns and cities, and the establishment of framework and processes which facilitate successful development.

Vitality and Viability: essential elements in the stability and future prosperity of town centres. They stem not only from a variety of retail uses but from the range and quality of activities in town centres and their accessibility to people.

 

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